Alternative names
Current Scheduling Status
Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
Technical information (most recent pre-review / critical review report)
ECDD Recommendation

Inclusion in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Recommendation (from TRS)

Substance identification
3-Chloromethcathinone or 3-CMC (IUPAC name: 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one),
is a synthetic cathinone. 3-CMC has been described as a grey or white solid and as a white powder. It
has been identified in capsule, tablet and liquid forms.

WHO review history
3-CMC has not been reviewed formally by WHO and is not currently under international control.
Information was brought to WHO’s attention that this substance is manufactured clandestinely, poses
a risk to public health and has no recognized therapeutic use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
3-CMC is a chemical analogue of methcathinone, which is controlled under Schedule I of the United
Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Its structural isomer, 4-CMC, is controlled
under Schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.
In common with other cathinone psychostimulants, 3-CMC has been shown to act via dopamine,
serotonin and norepinephrine transporters in the central nervous system to increase the
concentrations of these neurotransmitters.

Dependence potential
No controlled experimental studies of the dependence potential of 3-CMC in experimental animals or
humans were available; however, clinical admissions associated with dependence to 3-CMC have
been reported. Given its action in the central nervous system, 3-CMC would be expected to produce a
state of dependence similar to that produced by amphetamine and other psychostimulants.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
No controlled studies of the abuse potential of 3-CMC in experimental animals or humans were
available. In experimental animals, 3-CMC produced locomotor effects consistent with a psychostimulant.
Cases of intoxication with 3-CMC alone and with other drugs requiring hospitalization have been
reported. The adverse effects included agitation, restlessness, seizures, high blood pressure,
sweating, and chest pain. These adverse effects are similar to those of other psychostimulants, such
as amphetamine and various cathinones. Fatal intoxications involving 3-CMC have been documented,
including in cases in which 3-CMC was the only substance identified. It is reported to be administered
by various routes, including smoking, intranasally and by injection.3-CMC has been detected in an increasing number of countries in most regions of the world. Seizures of 3-CMC have been reported in multiple countries and regions, with recent increases coinciding with international control of 4-CMC.

Therapeutic use
3-CMC is not known to have any therapeutic uses and has never been marketed as a medicinal

Rationale and recommendation
3-Chloromethcathinone or 3-CMC is a synthetic cathinone with effects similar to those of other
synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and 4-CMC, which are listed as Schedule II substances
under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Its mode of action and effects are similar
to those of other cathinones. There is evidence of use of 3-CMC in a number of countries and regions,
where it has resulted in fatal and non-fatal intoxications. The substance causes substantial harm,
constitutes a substantial risk to public health and has no therapeutic use.
The Committee recommended that 3-chloromethcathinone or 3-CMC (IUPAC name: 1-(3-
chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one) be added to Schedule II of the Convention on
Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

MS Questionnaire Report