methyl 3,3-dimethyl-2-(1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)butanoate

Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
ECDD Recommendation
Inclusion in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Recommendation (from TRS)
Substance identification
Eutylone (IUPAC chemical name: 1-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino) butan-1-one) is a synthetic cathinone of the phenethylamine class. The hydrochloride salt of eutylone has been described as a crystalline solid. Eutylone is found mainly as tablets, capsules and crystals. It is used orally and intranasally.

WHO review history
Eutylone has not been formally reviewed by WHO and is not currently under international control. Information was brought to WHO’s attention that this substance is manufactured clandestinely, poses a risk to public health and has no recognized therapeutic use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
Eutylone is a synthetic cathinone with a mechanism of action and effects similar to those of other cathinones and stimulants such as methamphetamine. Related cathinones, such as methylone and N-ethylnorpentylone, are listed under Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. The clinical features described are similar to those with other cathinones, including sympathomimetic effects and psychostimulant effects such as euphoria, insomnia, tachycardia, agitation, anxiety, delirium and psychosis.

Dependence potential
No studies have been conducted in animals or humans on the dependence potential of eutylone. In view of its overall profile of effects, eutylone would be expected to produce dependence similarly to other psychostimulants.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
In an animal model that predicts abuse potential, eutylone was shown to produce effects similar to those of methamphetamine. Online reports from people reporting use of eutylone suggest that it has high abuse potential.

Eutylone has been detected in biological samples from forensic, post-mortem and DUID cases. Published case reports describe fatalities as a result of eutylone use. In addition to the effects described above, reported adverse events in these cases have included rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, hypertension and seizures.

Eutylone has been detected in seized materials in multiple countries in several regions.

Therapeutic usefulness
Eutylone is not known to have any therapeutic use.

Eutylone has effects similar to those of related cathinones listed under Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

There is evidence that this substance is used in multiple countries in various regions. Eutylone causes substantial harm, including severe adverse events and fatal intoxications. Its mode of action suggests the likelihood of abuse, and it poses a substantial risk to public health. It has no known therapeutic use.

Recommendation: The Committee recommended that eutylone (IUPAC chemical name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)butan-1-one) be added to Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.