Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT)

Alternative names
AMT
IUPAC Name

2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-methyl-ethylamine

Current Scheduling Status
None
Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
ECDD Recommendation
Placed under surveillance
Recommendation (from TRS)
Substance identification
Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) is chemically 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-methyl- ethylamine with (R)- and (S)- stereoisomers.

Previous review
AMT had not been previously pre-reviewed or critically reviewed by the Committee. A direct critical review was proposed based on information brought to WHO’s attention that AMT is clandestinely manufactured, poses an especially serious risk to public health and society, and has no recognized therapeutic use by any party. Preliminary data collected from the literature and from different countries indicated that this substance may cause substantial harm and that it has no medical use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
AMT shares several similarities with various scheduled tryptamine hallucino- gens such as alpha-ethyltryptamine (AET), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dial- lyltryptamine (5-MeO-DALT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO- DMT) and 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5 MeO-AMT). AMT has a high affinity for the 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin) transporter and inhib- its dopamine, 5 HT and norepinephrine reuptake and monoamine oxidase. It is a central nervous system stimulant with hallucinogenic properties. Adverse effects include mild increases in blood pressure or respiration rate, tachycardia, mydriasis, diaphoresis, salivation, severe nausea, severe vomiting, increased deep tendon reflexes, impaired coordination, visual and auditory disturbances and distortions. Although fatal intoxications involving AMT have been reported in the literature, they have also involved other drugs which may be a feature of the toxicity profile of AMT.

Dependence potential
No studies have examined the dependence potential of AMT in vitro, in animals or in humans.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
AMT abuse and/or seized material has been reported in nine countries. Although the use of tryptamines (including AMT) remains limited, the use appears to have increased over the past five years. AMT has been sold in the form of powders, capsules or pellets via the Internet.

Therapeutic usefulness
Historically, AMT was first developed in the 1960s as an antidepressant and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). There is no current legitimate medical or therapeutic use for AMT.

Recommendation
Owing to the current insufficiency of data regarding dependence, abuse and risks to public health, the Committee recommended that AMT not be placed under international control at this time but be kept under surveillance.