Current Scheduling Status
Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class

Recommendation (from TRS)

Substance identification
Adinazolam (IUPAC chemical name: 8-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-1-methanamine) is a triazolobenzodiazepine. Adinazolam appears as a white or yellow powder and is also sold as tablets and capsules.

WHO review history
Adinazolam has not been formally reviewed by WHO and is not currently under international control. Information was brought to the attention of WHO that this substance is manufactured clandestinely, poses a risk to public health and has no recognized therapeutic use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
Adinazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine with moderate affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor. It is a chemical analogue of alprazolam and triazolam.

Consistent with its benzodiazepine receptor action, adinazolam showed anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antidepressant properties in animals. In humans, adinazolam (and its metabolite N-desmethyladinazolam) produced a dose- dependent decrease in psychomotor performance and increased sedation and amnesia. It also had some subjective effects similar to those of benzodiazepines such as diazepam and lorazepam, which are controlled under Schedule IV of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Dependence potential
No studies have been conducted in animals or humans on the dependence potential of adinazolam. In view of its mechanism of action, however, it would be expected to produce typical benzodiazepine dependence.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
In animals, adinazolam shows behavioural effects consistent with those of drugs with abuse liability. In controlled studies in humans, adinazolam produced sedation, and, in one controlled study, adinazolam produced a self-reported "high" feeling, with a greater estimated street value than placebo.

Currently, there is insufficient evidence that adinazolam is being abused to such an extent as to constitute a public health problem. Seizures of adinazolam have been reported in a few countries in two regions. Adinazolam has been identified in falsified pharmaceutical benzodiazepine products, such as falsified alprazolam.

Adinazolam was identified in a few drug-related deaths in combination with other psychoactive substances, including opioids and other benzodiazepines; however, there was no evidence that adinazolam played a causative role in these deaths.

Therapeutic usefulness
Adinazolam is not known to have any therapeutic uses and is not listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

Adinazolam (IUPAC chemical name: 8-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-1-methanamine) has effects similar to those of substances listed under Schedule IV of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. There is, however, insufficient evidence that its use is a public health and social problem to justify its placement under international control.

Recommendation: The Committee recommended that adinazolam (IUPAC chemical name: 8-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a] [1,4]benzodiazepine-1-methanamine) be kept under surveillance by the WHO Secretariat.

ECDD Recommendation

Placed under surveillance