N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl] tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide

Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class

Recommendation (from TRS)

Substance identification
ADB-CHMINACA (N-[(2S)-1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]-1- (cyclohexylmethyl)indazole-3-carboxamide) is a synthetic cannabinoid that is also referred to as MAB-CHMINACA. ADB-CHMINACA is available as a powder, in solution or sprayed on plant material that mimics the appearance of cannabis. It is sold as herbal incense or branded products with a variety of different names.

WHO review history
ADB-CHMINACA has not been previously pre-reviewed or critically reviewed by the WHO ECDD. A critical review was proposed based on information brought to WHO’s attention that ADB-CHMINACA poses a serious risk to public health and has no recognized therapeutic use

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
ADB-CHMINACA is similar to other synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists that are currently scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. It binds to both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors with full agonist activity as demonstrated by in vitro studies. The efficacy and potency of ADB- CHMINACA is substantially greater than that of Δ9-THC and it is among the most potent synthetic cannabinoids studied to date. It has a profile of central nervous system-mediated effects similar to those of other synthetic cannabinoids. In mice, ADB-CHMINACA causes decreased locomotor activity in a dose- dependent fashion, with a rapid onset of action and long-lasting effects.

Signs and symptoms of intoxication associated with the use of ADB- CHMINACA have included tachycardia, unresponsiveness, agitation, combativeness, seizures, hyperemesis, slurred speech, delirium and sudden death. These are consistent with the effects of other synthetic cannabinoids.

Dependence potential
No controlled experimental studies examining the dependence potential of ADB-CHMINACA in humans or animals were available. However, based on its central nervous system action as a full CB1 agonist, ADB-CHMINACA would be expected to produce dependence in a manner similar to or more pronounced than cannabis.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
Consistent with its activity as a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, ADB- CHMINACA fully substituted for Δ9-THC in drug discrimination tests. This suggests that it has abuse potential similar to that of Δ9-THC.

Evidence of the use of ADB-CHMINACA has been reported from Europe, Japan and the United States, including cases of driving under the influence. It is smoked (as preparations of drug components introduced onto plant material) or vaped (i.e. using an e-cigarette). Owing to the nature of synthetic cannabinoid products, users cannot tell which synthetic cannabinoid may be contained within such products.

ADB-CHMINACA use was analytically confirmed in case reports of several drug-induced clusters of severe illness and death in the United States. In Europe, 13 deaths associated with analytically confirmed use of ADB-CHMINACA were reported between 2014 and 2016, and another death occurred in Japan.

Therapeutic usefulness
ADB-CHMINACA is not known to have any therapeutic use.

ADB-CHMINACA is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that is used by smoking plant material sprayed with the substance or inhaling vapour after heating. It has effects that are similar to those of other synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists placed in Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Its mode of action suggests the potential for dependence and the likelihood of abuse. There is evidence that ADB-CHMINACA has been associated with numerous cases of fatal and non-fatal intoxications in a number of countries. The substance causes substantial harm and has no therapeutic use.

■■ Recommendation: The Committee recommended that ADB- CHMINACA (N-[(2S)-1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]- 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) be added to Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

ECDD Recommendation

Inclusion in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances