Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
Technical information (most recent pre-review / critical review report)
ECDD Recommendation
Inclusion in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Recommendation (from TRS)

Substance identification
5F-AMB-PINACA (methyl 2-({[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]carbonyl} amino)-3-methylbutanoate, is a synthetic cannabinoid. It is likely to be sprayed on plant material for smoking.

WHO review history
5F-AMB-PINACA has not been reviewed previously. A critical review was proposed on the basis of information brought to WHO’s attention that 5F-AMB- PINACA is manufactured clandestinely, poses a risk to public health and society and has no therapeutic use recognized by any Party.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
5F-AMB-PINACA binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors with full agonist activity at the CB1 receptor. It has molecular mechanisms and functional properties similar to those of other synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists that are currently controlled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

In preclinical studies in mice, 5F-AMB-PINACA induced convulsions.

In a single report of intoxication in humans, in which 5F-AMB-PINACA was confirmed analytically to be the only drug present, the clinical features were consistent with those of other synthetic cannabinoids. The features included bloodshot eyes, cognitive impairment, slowed movement, slurred speech, anxiety and poor coordination. Memory impairment has also been reported after use of the drug.

Dependence potential
No controlled experimental studies on the dependence potential of 5F-AMB- PINACA in animal or human models were available. In view of its action on the central nervous system as a full CB1 agonist, however, it would be expected to produce dependence in a manner similar to other synthetic cannabinoids.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
In drug discrimination tests in animals predictive of subjective effects in humans, 5F-AMB-PINACA showed typical cannabinoid-like effects and would therefore be likely to be abused.

At least three deaths have been associated with use of 5F-AMB-PINACA, confirmed by analysis of blood. 5F-AMB-PINACA has been identified as a causal factor in a number of motor vehicle accidents, some of which resulted in fatalities.

It has been detected in over 30 countries in different regions and is currently controlled in several countries.

Therapeutic usefulness
5F-AMB-PINACA is not known to have any therapeutic use.

5F-AMB-PINACA is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist with a mode of action that suggests the likelihood of abuse and dependence potential similar to that of other synthetic cannabinoids. Its use has been associated with severe adverse effects, including death. These effects are similar to those produced by synthetic cannabinoids that are placed in Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. 5F- AMB-PINACA has no therapeutic use.

■ Recommendation: The Committee recommended that 5F-AMB- PINACA (methyl 2-({[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]carbonyl} amino)-3-methylbutanoate be added to Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.