Alternative names


Current Scheduling Status
Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
ECDD Recommendation
Placed under surveillance
Recommendation (from TRS)
Substance identification
The chemical structure of 4F-MDMB-BICA (IUPAC chemical name: Methyl 2-({[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is similar to those of a number of synthetic cannabinoids. It has been identified in seized materials as a white, off-white, brown or orange powder and has been identified in herbal blends, vaping solutions and infused onto paper. It is also available as a reference material as a crystalline solid.

WHO review history
4F-MDMB-BICA has not been formally reviewed by WHO and is not currently under international control. Information was brought to WHO’s attention that this substance is manufactured clandestinely, poses a risk to public health and has no recognized therapeutic use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
4F-MDMB-BICA is a synthetic cannabinoid, structurally related to 5F-MDMB- PICA, a synthetic cannabinoid that is included in Schedule II of the United Nations Single Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Some data suggest that 4F-MDMB-BICA has activity at the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor, but this action may not be identical to that exerted by other CB1 agonists. The effects of 4F-MDMB-BICA have not been evaluated in animals or humans, and there are insufficient data on overdose cases to confirm that it has typical cannabinoid effects.

Dependence potential
No studies have been reported in animals or humans on the dependence potential of 4F-MDMB-BICA.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
No studies have been reported in animals or humans to indicate the likelihood of abuse of 4F-MDMB-BICA. A number of countries in various regions have reported use of 4F-MDMB-BICA. Its use has been associated with deaths and emergency department visits, although many substances were present in biological samples, and the relationship between 4F-MDMB-BICA exposure and cause of death was not established.

Therapeutic usefulness
4F-MDMB-BICA is not known to have any therapeutic use.

The structure of 4F-MDMB-BICA is similar to those of other synthetic cannabinoids, but its mechanism of action has yet to be confirmed. The magnitude of harm due to 4F-MDMB-BICA alone is unclear, and its effects and abuse potential have not been studied in animals or humans. In view of the limited information available on abuse, dependence and risks to public health, there is insufficient evidence to justify placing 4F-MDMB-BICA under international control.

Recommendation: The Committee recommended that 4F-MDMB-BICA (IUPAC chemical name: Methyl 2-({[1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl} amino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) be kept under surveillance by the WHO secretariat.