3-fluorophenmetrazine

Alternative names
3-FPM
IUPAC Name

N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpentanamide

Current Scheduling Status
None
Year(s) and type of review / ECDD meetings
Drug Class
Technical information (most recent pre-review / critical review report)
ECDD Recommendation
Placed under surveillance
Recommendation (from TRS)

Substance identification
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (chemical name: 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3- methylmorpholine) is also known as 3F-phenmetrazine, 3-FPM, 3-FPH and PAL-593. 3-Fluorophenmetrazine is a white, solid, crystalline powder and has been found as tablets.

WHO review history
3-Fluorophenmetrazine has not been formally reviewed by WHO and is not currently under international control. Information was brought to WHO’s attention that this substance is manufactured clandestinely, poses a risk to public health and is of no recognized therapeutic use.

Similarity to known substances and effects on the central nervous system
3-Fluorophenmetrazine is a derivative of phenmetrazine, an amphetamine- type substance listed under Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, with known abuse potential. 3-Fluorophenmetrazine is a potent releaser of dopamine and norepinephrine. In humans, its effects are similar to those of amphetamine and include euphoria, stimulation, increased energy, talkativeness and insomnia. Adverse effects include tachycardia, agitation, delirium and seizures.

Dependence potential
3-fluorophenmetrazine is a derivative of phenmetrazine, an amphetamine- type substance listed under Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, with known abuse potential. 3-fluorophenmetrazine is a potent releaser of dopamine and norepinephrine. In humans, its effects are similar to those of amphetamine and include euphoria, stimulation, increased energy, talkativeness and insomnia. Adverse effects include tachycardia, agitation, delirium and seizures.

Actual abuse and/or evidence of likelihood of abuse
Given the structural similarity between 3-fluorophenmetrazine and phenmetrazine (a stimulant with known abuse liability) and biological effects similar to those of amphetamine-like substances (i.e. through release of dopamine and norepinephrine), 3-fluorophenmetrazine is expected to have similar abuse potential; however, there is no evidence to confirm this assumption.

Case reports have been published of adverse effects including tachycardia, reduced level of consciousness, agitation, anxiety, delirium and, less commonly, kidney damage, hypertension and fatal intoxication. The role of 3-fluorophenmetrazine in the limited number of serious non-fatal and fatal intoxications was, however, inconclusive.

Samples purchased online, as either 3-fluorophenmetrazine or other substances, have been identified as containing 3-fluorophenmetrazine. Seizures have been described in six countries in several regions.

Therapeutic usefulness
3-Fluorophenmetrazine is not known to have any therapeutic use.

Recommendation
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (chemical name: 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3- methylmorpholine) has a mode of action and effects similar to those of phenmetrazine, an amphetamine-type substance listed under Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. While this suggests that it has a potential for dependence and the likelihood of abuse, there is little supportive evidence. In addition, there is no evidence of the extent of public health and social problems related to use of 3-fluorophenmetrazine and some uncertainty about its toxicity.

Recommendation: The Committee recommended that 3-fluorophenmetrazine (chemical name: 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine) be kept under surveillance by the WHO Secretariat.